Unable to update/modify SwiftUI View's @state var


I'm unable to update the ExampleView's message var even though I can see updateMessage() is being called. Here is my simplified/convoluted SwiftUI example of Playground code that isn't working. The message var does not get updated when called in updateMessage(). As a result, the UI Text() is not updated either.

Why is the @State var message not updating? What is the correct way to update it?

import SwiftUI import PlaygroundSupport struct ContentView: View { let coloredLabel = ExampleView() var body: some View { VStack { coloredLabel .foregroundColor(Color.red) .padding() Button(action: { self.coloredLabel.updateMessage() }) { Text("Press me") } } } } struct ExampleView: View { @State private var message: String = "Hello" var body: some View { Text(self.message) } func updateMessage() { print("updateMessage ran") // this prints self.message = "Updated" } } PlaygroundPage.current.setLiveView(ContentView())

You should only change State of a view Inside it's own body block. If you need to change it from a parent view, you may want to pass the value to it from parent and make it Binding instead.

struct ContentView: View { @State private var message = "Hello" var body: some View { VStack { ExampleView(message: $message) .foregroundColor(Color.red) .padding() Button("Press me") { self.message = "Updated" } } } } struct ExampleView: View { @Binding var message: String var body: some View { Text(message) } } <hr />

If you need to encapsulate messages inside the ExampleView, you can use a Bool (or an enum or etc) instead:

struct ContentView: View { @State private var updated = false var body: some View { VStack { ExampleView(isUpdated: $updated) .foregroundColor(Color.red) .padding() Button("Press me") { self.updated = true } } } } struct ExampleView: View { @Binding var isUpdated: Bool private var message: String { isUpdated ? "Updated" : "Hello" } var body: some View { Text(message) } }

actually, the variable does get updated, but your Content view doesn't get informed about it. This is what happens:

<ul><li>ContentView gets called, it initializes <i>coloredLabel</i> with an <i>ExampleView</i></li> <li>you press the button in ContentView</li> <li>self.coloredLabel.updateMessage() get's called</li> <li>the message is printed</li> <li>the variable self.coloredLabel.message is modified</li> <li>ContentView does not get redrawn, as it isn't notified about the change</li> <li>more specifically, <i>coloredLabel</i> inside your Stack doesn't get updated</li> </ul>

now, you have different options: @State, @Binding and @PublishedObject, @ObservedObject. You need one of these Publishers, so your view actually notices that it needs to do something.

Either you draw a new ExampleView every time you press the button, in this case you can use a @State variable in ContentView:

struct ContentView: View { @State private var string = "Hello" var body: some View { VStack { ExampleView(message: string) .foregroundColor(Color.red) .padding() Button(action: { self.string = "Updated" }) { Text("Press me") } } } } struct ExampleView: View { var message: String var body: some View { Text(self.message) } }

which is probably not what you want.

Next, you can use <i>@Binding</i> which was already suggested.

And last, you can use <i>ObservableObject @ObservedObject, @Published</i>

class ExampleState: ObservableObject { @Published var message: String = "Hello" func update() { message = "Updated" } } struct ContentView: View { @ObservedObject var state = ExampleState() var body: some View { VStack { ExampleView(state: state) .foregroundColor(Color.red) .padding() Button(action: { self.state.update() }) { Text("Press me") } } } } struct ExampleView: View { @ObservedObject var state: ExampleState var body: some View { Text(state.message) } }

what this says is: class ExampleState: ObservableObject - this class has published variables that can be observed

to resume (that's how I understand it):

<ul><li>"Hey, ContentView and ExampleView: if state.message (any value that state publishes) changes, you need to redraw your body"</li> <li>"And ExampleState: after updating your message variable, publish the new value!"</li> </ul>

lastly - for completion - there is @EnvironmentObject, as well, that way you'd only have to pass the variable to the top-views and everything down the view hierarchy would inherit it.


One of the solutions that should work, but as guys say, you can work with @Binding

struct ExampleView: View { var message: String = "Hello" var body: some View { Text(self.message) } mutating func updateMessage() { print("updateMessage ran") message = "Updated" } }



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