Human readable URL Scheme for ASP.NET MVC


My ASP site has a database full of events. Currently, the Action on my Controller for linking to a particular event has a URL like: "mysite.com/events/5"

This is the default behavior, and I'm looking for how to make the URL something more like: "mysite.com/events/some-event-name-that-makes-sense

I have plenty of properties on my event entity that could map to the url, just not sure how to apply it, and how to allow my Action to find it when linking someone to it.


What you're referring to is called a slug. However, you can't just use any old property on your model to stuff something into the URL. Typically, you'll have a separate property called Slug where you will store a URL-safe version of something like the title or name of an object. Once you've done this, it's a simple matter of just using it to generate your URLs and to look up your objects.

For example, where you would have had something like:

Url.Action("Events", new { id = item.Id })

You'd use instead:

Url.Action("Events", new { slug = item.Slug })

Then, you modify your action to accept the slug instead of an id and use that to query your event:

public ActionResult EventDetail(string slug) { var evt = db.Events.SingleOrDefault(m => m.Slug == slug); ...

The only slight hitch is you need some way to generate this slug to save it with the rest of the event data. I have the following extension methods I use:

public static string RemoveDiacritics(this string s) { s = s ?? string.Empty; if (s.Length > 0) { char[] chars = new char[s.Length]; int charIndex = 0; s = s.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormD); for (int i = 0; i < s.Length; i++) { char c = s[i]; if (CharUnicodeInfo.GetUnicodeCategory(c) != UnicodeCategory.NonSpacingMark) chars[charIndex++] = c; } return new string(chars, 0, charIndex).Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormC); } return s; } public static string Slugify(this string s) { s = s ?? string.Empty; //First to lower case s = s.ToLowerInvariant().RemoveDiacritics(); //Replace spaces s = Regex.Replace(s, @"\s", "-", RegexOptions.Compiled); //Remove invalid chars s = Regex.Replace(s, @"[^a-z0-9s\-_]", "", RegexOptions.Compiled); //Trim dashes from end s = s.Trim('-', '_'); //Replace double occurences of - or _ s = Regex.Replace(s, @"([\-_]){2,}", "$1", RegexOptions.Compiled); return s; }

So, then, you'd just do something like:

evt.Slug = evt.Title.Slugify();

And/or you can actually make it an editable field in your admin/CMS.


JavaScript version

var MyNamespace = MyNamespace || {}; MyNamespace.Utilities = {}; MyNamespace.Utilities.RemoveDiacritics = (function () { var diacritics = { "\u24B6": "A", "\uFF21": "A", "\u00C0": "A", "\u00C1": "A", "\u00C2": "A", "\u1EA6": "A", "\u1EA4": "A", "\u1EAA": "A", "\u1EA8": "A", "\u00C3": "A", "\u0100": "A", "\u0102": "A", "\u1EB0": "A", "\u1EAE": "A", "\u1EB4": "A", "\u1EB2": "A", "\u0226": "A", "\u01E0": "A", "\u00C4": "A", "\u01DE": "A", "\u1EA2": "A", "\u00C5": "A", "\u01FA": "A", "\u01CD": "A", "\u0200": "A", "\u0202": "A", "\u1EA0": "A", "\u1EAC": "A", "\u1EB6": "A", "\u1E00": "A", "\u0104": "A", "\u023A": "A", "\u2C6F": "A", "\uA732": "AA", "\u00C6": "AE", "\u01FC": "AE", "\u01E2": "AE", "\uA734": "AO", "\uA736": "AU", "\uA738": "AV", "\uA73A": "AV", "\uA73C": "AY", "\u24B7": "B", "\uFF22": "B", "\u1E02": "B", "\u1E04": "B", "\u1E06": "B", "\u0243": "B", "\u0182": "B", "\u0181": "B", "\u24B8": "C", "\uFF23": "C", "\u0106": "C", "\u0108": "C", "\u010A": "C", "\u010C": "C", "\u00C7": "C", "\u1E08": "C", "\u0187": "C", "\u023B": "C", "\uA73E": "C", "\u24B9": "D", "\uFF24": "D", "\u1E0A": "D", "\u010E": "D", "\u1E0C": "D", "\u1E10": "D", "\u1E12": "D", "\u1E0E": "D", "\u0110": "D", "\u018B": "D", "\u018A": "D", "\u0189": "D", "\uA779": "D", "\u01F1": "DZ", "\u01C4": "DZ", "\u01F2": "Dz", "\u01C5": "Dz", "\u24BA": "E", "\uFF25": "E", "\u00C8": "E", "\u00C9": "E", "\u00CA": "E", "\u1EC0": "E", "\u1EBE": "E", "\u1EC4": "E", "\u1EC2": "E", "\u1EBC": "E", "\u0112": "E", "\u1E14": "E", "\u1E16": "E", "\u0114": "E", "\u0116": "E", "\u00CB": "E", "\u1EBA": "E", "\u011A": "E", "\u0204": "E", "\u0206": "E", "\u1EB8": "E", "\u1EC6": "E", "\u0228": "E", "\u1E1C": "E", "\u0118": "E", "\u1E18": "E", "\u1E1A": "E", "\u0190": "E", "\u018E": "E", "\u24BB": "F", "\uFF26": "F", "\u1E1E": "F", "\u0191": "F", "\uA77B": "F", "\u24BC": "G", "\uFF27": "G", "\u01F4": "G", "\u011C": "G", "\u1E20": "G", "\u011E": "G", "\u0120": "G", "\u01E6": "G", "\u0122": "G", "\u01E4": "G", "\u0193": "G", "\uA7A0": "G", "\uA77D": "G", "\uA77E": "G", "\u24BD": "H", "\uFF28": "H", "\u0124": "H", "\u1E22": "H", "\u1E26": "H", "\u021E": "H", "\u1E24": "H", "\u1E28": "H", "\u1E2A": "H", "\u0126": "H", "\u2C67": "H", "\u2C75": "H", "\uA78D": "H", "\u24BE": "I", "\uFF29": "I", "\u00CC": "I", "\u00CD": "I", "\u00CE": "I", "\u0128": "I", "\u012A": "I", "\u012C": "I", "\u0130": "I", "\u00CF": "I", "\u1E2E": "I", "\u1EC8": "I", "\u01CF": "I", "\u0208": "I", "\u020A": "I", "\u1ECA": "I", "\u012E": "I", "\u1E2C": "I", "\u0197": "I", "\u24BF": "J", "\uFF2A": "J", "\u0134": "J", "\u0248": "J", "\u24C0": "K", "\uFF2B": "K", "\u1E30": "K", "\u01E8": "K", "\u1E32": "K", "\u0136": "K", "\u1E34": "K", "\u0198": "K", "\u2C69": "K", "\uA740": "K", "\uA742": "K", "\uA744": "K", "\uA7A2": "K", "\u24C1": "L", "\uFF2C": "L", "\u013F": "L", "\u0139": "L", "\u013D": "L", "\u1E36": "L", "\u1E38": "L", "\u013B": "L", "\u1E3C": "L", "\u1E3A": "L", "\u0141": "L", "\u023D": "L", "\u2C62": "L", "\u2C60": "L", "\uA748": "L", "\uA746": "L", "\uA780": "L", "\u01C7": "LJ", "\u01C8": "Lj", "\u24C2": "M", "\uFF2D": "M", "\u1E3E": "M", "\u1E40": "M", "\u1E42": "M", "\u2C6E": "M", "\u019C": "M", "\u24C3": "N", "\uFF2E": "N", "\u01F8": "N", "\u0143": "N", "\u00D1": "N", "\u1E44": "N", "\u0147": "N", "\u1E46": "N", "\u0145": "N", "\u1E4A": "N", "\u1E48": "N", "\u0220": "N", "\u019D": "N", "\uA790": "N", "\uA7A4": "N", "\u01CA": "NJ", "\u01CB": "Nj", "\u24C4": "O", "\uFF2F": "O", "\u00D2": "O", "\u00D3": "O", "\u00D4": "O", "\u1ED2": "O", "\u1ED0": "O", "\u1ED6": "O", "\u1ED4": "O", "\u00D5": "O", "\u1E4C": "O", "\u022C": "O", "\u1E4E": "O", "\u014C": "O", "\u1E50": "O", "\u1E52": "O", "\u014E": "O", "\u022E": "O", "\u0230": "O", "\u00D6": "O", "\u022A": "O", "\u1ECE": "O", "\u0150": "O", "\u01D1": "O", "\u020C": "O", "\u020E": "O", "\u01A0": "O", "\u1EDC": "O", "\u1EDA": "O", "\u1EE0": "O", "\u1EDE": "O", "\u1EE2": "O", "\u1ECC": "O", "\u1ED8": "O", "\u01EA": "O", "\u01EC": "O", "\u00D8": "O", "\u01FE": "O", "\u0186": "O", "\u019F": "O", "\uA74A": "O", "\uA74C": "O", "\u0152": "OE", "\u01A2": "OI", "\uA74E": "OO", "\u0222": "OU", "\u24C5": "P", "\uFF30": "P", "\u1E54": "P", "\u1E56": "P", "\u01A4": "P", "\u2C63": "P", "\uA750": "P", "\uA752": "P", "\uA754": "P", "\u24C6": "Q", "\uFF31": "Q", "\uA756": "Q", "\uA758": "Q", "\u024A": "Q", "\u24C7": "R", "\uFF32": "R", "\u0154": "R", "\u1E58": "R", "\u0158": "R", "\u0210": "R", "\u0212": "R", "\u1E5A": "R", "\u1E5C": "R", "\u0156": "R", "\u1E5E": "R", "\u024C": "R", "\u2C64": "R", "\uA75A": "R", "\uA7A6": "R", "\uA782": "R", "\u24C8": "S", "\uFF33": "S", "\u015A": "S", "\u1E64": "S", "\u015C": "S", "\u1E60": "S", "\u0160": "S", "\u1E66": "S", "\u1E62": "S", "\u1E68": "S", "\u0218": "S", "\u015E": "S", "\u2C7E": "S", "\uA7A8": "S", "\uA784": "S", "\u1E9E": "SS", "\u24C9": "T", "\uFF34": "T", "\u1E6A": "T", "\u0164": "T", "\u1E6C": "T", "\u021A": "T", "\u0162": "T", "\u1E70": "T", "\u1E6E": "T", "\u0166": "T", "\u01AC": "T", "\u01AE": "T", "\u023E": "T", "\uA786": "T", "\uA728": "TZ", "\u24CA": "U", "\uFF35": "U", "\u00D9": "U", "\u00DA": "U", "\u00DB": "U", "\u0168": "U", "\u1E78": "U", "\u016A": "U", "\u1E7A": "U", "\u016C": "U", "\u00DC": "U", "\u01DB": "U", "\u01D7": "U", "\u01D5": "U", "\u01D9": "U", "\u1EE6": "U", "\u016E": "U", "\u0170": "U", "\u01D3": "U", "\u0214": "U", "\u0216": "U", "\u01AF": "U", "\u1EEA": "U", "\u1EE8": "U", "\u1EEE": "U", "\u1EEC": "U", "\u1EF0": "U", "\u1EE4": "U", "\u1E72": "U", "\u0172": "U", "\u1E76": "U", "\u1E74": "U", "\u0244": "U", "\u24CB": "V", "\uFF36": "V", "\u1E7C": "V", "\u1E7E": "V", "\u01B2": "V", "\uA75E": "V", "\u0245": "V", "\uA760": "VY", "\u24CC": "W", "\uFF37": "W", "\u1E80": "W", "\u1E82": "W", "\u0174": "W", "\u1E86": "W", "\u1E84": "W", "\u1E88": "W", "\u2C72": "W", "\u24CD": "X", "\uFF38": "X", "\u1E8A": "X", "\u1E8C": "X", "\u24CE": "Y", "\uFF39": "Y", "\u1EF2": "Y", "\u00DD": "Y", "\u0176": "Y", "\u1EF8": "Y", "\u0232": "Y", "\u1E8E": "Y", "\u0178": "Y", "\u1EF6": "Y", "\u1EF4": "Y", "\u01B3": "Y", "\u024E": "Y", "\u1EFE": "Y", "\u24CF": "Z", "\uFF3A": "Z", "\u0179": "Z", "\u1E90": "Z", "\u017B": "Z", "\u017D": "Z", "\u1E92": "Z", "\u1E94": "Z", "\u01B5": "Z", "\u0224": "Z", "\u2C7F": "Z", "\u2C6B": "Z", "\uA762": "Z", "\u24D0": "a", "\uFF41": "a", "\u1E9A": "a", "\u00E0": "a", "\u00E1": "a", "\u00E2": "a", "\u1EA7": "a", "\u1EA5": "a", "\u1EAB": "a", "\u1EA9": "a", "\u00E3": "a", "\u0101": "a", "\u0103": "a", "\u1EB1": "a", "\u1EAF": "a", "\u1EB5": "a", "\u1EB3": "a", "\u0227": "a", "\u01E1": "a", "\u00E4": "a", "\u01DF": "a", "\u1EA3": "a", "\u00E5": "a", "\u01FB": "a", "\u01CE": "a", "\u0201": "a", "\u0203": "a", "\u1EA1": "a", "\u1EAD": "a", "\u1EB7": "a", "\u1E01": "a", "\u0105": "a", "\u2C65": "a", "\u0250": "a", "\uA733": "aa", "\u00E6": "ae", "\u01FD": "ae", "\u01E3": "ae", "\uA735": "ao", "\uA737": "au", "\uA739": "av", "\uA73B": "av", "\uA73D": "ay", "\u24D1": "b", "\uFF42": "b", "\u1E03": "b", "\u1E05": "b", "\u1E07": "b", "\u0180": "b", "\u0183": "b", "\u0253": "b", "\u24D2": "c", "\uFF43": "c", "\u0107": "c", "\u0109": "c", "\u010B": "c", "\u010D": "c", "\u00E7": "c", "\u1E09": "c", "\u0188": "c", "\u023C": "c", "\uA73F": "c", "\u2184": "c", "\u24D3": "d", "\uFF44": "d", "\u1E0B": "d", "\u010F": "d", "\u1E0D": "d", "\u1E11": "d", "\u1E13": "d", "\u1E0F": "d", "\u0111": "d", "\u018C": "d", "\u0256": "d", "\u0257": "d", "\uA77A": "d", "\u01F3": "dz", "\u01C6": "dz", "\u24D4": "e", "\uFF45": "e", "\u00E8": "e", "\u00E9": "e", "\u00EA": "e", "\u1EC1": "e", "\u1EBF": "e", "\u1EC5": "e", "\u1EC3": "e", "\u1EBD": "e", "\u0113": "e", "\u1E15": "e", "\u1E17": "e", "\u0115": "e", "\u0117": "e", "\u00EB": "e", "\u1EBB": "e", "\u011B": "e", "\u0205": "e", "\u0207": "e", "\u1EB9": "e", "\u1EC7": "e", "\u0229": "e", "\u1E1D": "e", "\u0119": "e", "\u1E19": "e", "\u1E1B": "e", "\u0247": "e", "\u025B": "e", "\u01DD": "e", "\u24D5": "f", "\uFF46": "f", "\u1E1F": "f", "\u0192": "f", "\uA77C": "f", "\u24D6": "g", "\uFF47": "g", "\u01F5": "g", "\u011D": "g", "\u1E21": "g", "\u011F": "g", "\u0121": "g", "\u01E7": "g", "\u0123": "g", "\u01E5": "g", "\u0260": "g", "\uA7A1": "g", "\u1D79": "g", "\uA77F": "g", "\u24D7": "h", "\uFF48": "h", "\u0125": "h", "\u1E23": "h", "\u1E27": "h", "\u021F": "h", "\u1E25": "h", "\u1E29": "h", "\u1E2B": "h", "\u1E96": "h", "\u0127": "h", "\u2C68": "h", "\u2C76": "h", "\u0265": "h", "\u0195": "hv", "\u24D8": "i", "\uFF49": "i", "\u00EC": "i", "\u00ED": "i", "\u00EE": "i", "\u0129": "i", "\u012B": "i", "\u012D": "i", "\u00EF": "i", "\u1E2F": "i", "\u1EC9": "i", "\u01D0": "i", "\u0209": "i", "\u020B": "i", "\u1ECB": "i", "\u012F": "i", "\u1E2D": "i", "\u0268": "i", "\u0131": "i", "\u24D9": "j", "\uFF4A": "j", "\u0135": "j", "\u01F0": "j", "\u0249": "j", "\u24DA": "k", "\uFF4B": "k", "\u1E31": "k", "\u01E9": "k", "\u1E33": "k", "\u0137": "k", "\u1E35": "k", "\u0199": "k", "\u2C6A": "k", "\uA741": "k", "\uA743": "k", "\uA745": "k", "\uA7A3": "k", "\u24DB": "l", "\uFF4C": "l", "\u0140": "l", "\u013A": "l", "\u013E": "l", "\u1E37": "l", "\u1E39": "l", "\u013C": "l", "\u1E3D": "l", "\u1E3B": "l", "\u0142": "l", "\u019A": "l", "\u026B": "l", "\u2C61": "l", "\uA749": "l", "\uA781": "l", "\uA747": "l", "\u01C9": "lj", "\u24DC": "m", "\uFF4D": "m", "\u1E3F": "m", "\u1E41": "m", "\u1E43": "m", "\u0271": "m", "\u026F": "m", "\u24DD": "n", "\uFF4E": "n", "\u01F9": "n", "\u0144": "n", "\u00F1": "n", "\u1E45": "n", "\u0148": "n", "\u1E47": "n", "\u0146": "n", "\u1E4B": "n", "\u1E49": "n", "\u019E": "n", "\u0272": "n", "\u0149": "n", "\uA791": "n", "\uA7A5": "n", "\u01CC": "nj", "\u24DE": "o", "\uFF4F": "o", "\u00F2": "o", "\u00F3": "o", "\u00F4": "o", "\u1ED3": "o", "\u1ED1": "o", "\u1ED7": "o", "\u1ED5": "o", "\u00F5": "o", "\u1E4D": "o", "\u022D": "o", "\u1E4F": "o", "\u014D": "o", "\u1E51": "o", "\u1E53": "o", "\u014F": "o", "\u022F": "o", "\u0231": "o", "\u00F6": "o", "\u022B": "o", "\u1ECF": "o", "\u0151": "o", "\u01D2": "o", "\u020D": "o", "\u020F": "o", "\u01A1": "o", "\u1EDD": "o", "\u1EDB": "o", "\u1EE1": "o", "\u1EDF": "o", "\u1EE3": "o", "\u1ECD": "o", "\u1ED9": "o", "\u01EB": "o", "\u01ED": "o", "\u00F8": "o", "\u01FF": "o", "\u0254": "o", "\uA74B": "o", "\uA74D": "o", "\u0275": "o", "\u0153": "oe", "\u0276": "oe", "\u01A3": "oi", "\u0223": "ou", "\uA74F": "oo", "\u24DF": "p", "\uFF50": "p", "\u1E55": "p", "\u1E57": "p", "\u01A5": "p", "\u1D7D": "p", "\uA751": "p", "\uA753": "p", "\uA755": "p", "\u24E0": "q", "\uFF51": "q", "\u024B": "q", "\uA757": "q", "\uA759": "q", "\u24E1": "r", "\uFF52": "r", "\u0155": "r", "\u1E59": "r", "\u0159": "r", "\u0211": "r", "\u0213": "r", "\u1E5B": "r", "\u1E5D": "r", "\u0157": "r", "\u1E5F": "r", "\u024D": "r", "\u027D": "r", "\uA75B": "r", "\uA7A7": "r", "\uA783": "r", "\u24E2": "s", "\uFF53": "s", "\u015B": "s", "\u1E65": "s", "\u015D": "s", "\u1E61": "s", "\u0161": "s", "\u1E67": "s", "\u1E63": "s", "\u1E69": "s", "\u0219": "s", "\u015F": "s", "\u023F": "s", "\uA7A9": "s", "\uA785": "s", "\u017F": "s", "\u1E9B": "s", "\u00DF": "ss", "\u24E3": "t", "\uFF54": "t", "\u1E6B": "t", "\u1E97": "t", "\u0165": "t", "\u1E6D": "t", "\u021B": "t", "\u0163": "t", "\u1E71": "t", "\u1E6F": "t", "\u0167": "t", "\u01AD": "t", "\u0288": "t", "\u2C66": "t", "\uA787": "t", "\uA729": "tz", "\u24E4": "u", "\uFF55": "u", "\u00F9": "u", "\u00FA": "u", "\u00FB": "u", "\u0169": "u", "\u1E79": "u", "\u016B": "u", "\u1E7B": "u", "\u016D": "u", "\u00FC": "u", "\u01DC": "u", "\u01D8": "u", "\u01D6": "u", "\u01DA": "u", "\u1EE7": "u", "\u016F": "u", "\u0171": "u", "\u01D4": "u", "\u0215": "u", "\u0217": "u", "\u01B0": "u", "\u1EEB": "u", "\u1EE9": "u", "\u1EEF": "u", "\u1EED": "u", "\u1EF1": "u", "\u1EE5": "u", "\u1E73": "u", "\u0173": "u", "\u1E77": "u", "\u1E75": "u", "\u0289": "u", "\u24E5": "v", "\uFF56": "v", "\u1E7D": "v", "\u1E7F": "v", "\u028B": "v", "\uA75F": "v", "\u028C": "v", "\uA761": "vy", "\u24E6": "w", "\uFF57": "w", "\u1E81": "w", "\u1E83": "w", "\u0175": "w", "\u1E87": "w", "\u1E85": "w", "\u1E98": "w", "\u1E89": "w", "\u2C73": "w", "\u24E7": "x", "\uFF58": "x", "\u1E8B": "x", "\u1E8D": "x", "\u24E8": "y", "\uFF59": "y", "\u1EF3": "y", "\u00FD": "y", "\u0177": "y", "\u1EF9": "y", "\u0233": "y", "\u1E8F": "y", "\u00FF": "y", "\u1EF7": "y", "\u1E99": "y", "\u1EF5": "y", "\u01B4": "y", "\u024F": "y", "\u1EFF": "y", "\u24E9": "z", "\uFF5A": "z", "\u017A": "z", "\u1E91": "z", "\u017C": "z", "\u017E": "z", "\u1E93": "z", "\u1E95": "z", "\u01B6": "z", "\u0225": "z", "\u0240": "z", "\u2C6C": "z", "\uA763": "z", "\uFF10": "0", "\u2080": "0", "\u24EA": "0", "\u2070": "0", "\u00B9": "1", "\u2474": "1", "\u2081": "1", "\u2776": "1", "\u24F5": "1", "\u2488": "1", "\u2460": "1", "\uFF11": "1", "\u00B2": "2", "\u2777": "2", "\u2475": "2", "\uFF12": "2", "\u2082": "2", "\u24F6": "2", "\u2461": "2", "\u2489": "2", "\u00B3": "3", "\uFF13": "3", "\u248A": "3", "\u2476": "3", "\u2083": "3", "\u2778": "3", "\u24F7": "3", "\u2462": "3", "\u24F8": "4", "\u2463": "4", "\u248B": "4", "\uFF14": "4", "\u2074": "4", "\u2084": "4", "\u2779": "4", "\u2477": "4", "\u248C": "5", "\u2085": "5", "\u24F9": "5", "\u2478": "5", "\u277A": "5", "\u2464": "5", "\uFF15": "5", "\u2075": "5", "\u2479": "6", "\u2076": "6", "\uFF16": "6", "\u277B": "6", "\u2086": "6", "\u2465": "6", "\u24FA": "6", "\u248D": "6", "\uFF17": "7", "\u2077": "7", "\u277C": "7", "\u24FB": "7", "\u248E": "7", "\u2087": "7", "\u247A": "7", "\u2466": "7", "\u2467": "8", "\u248F": "8", "\u24FC": "8", "\u247B": "8", "\u2078": "8", "\uFF18": "8", "\u277D": "8", "\u2088": "8", "\u24FD": "9", "\uFF19": "9", "\u2490": "9", "\u277E": "9", "\u247C": "9", "\u2089": "9", "\u2468": "9", "\u2079": "9" }; return function (str) { if (typeof (str) == "undefined") return ''; var chars = str.split(''), i = chars.length - 1, alter = false, ch; for (; i >= 0; i--) { ch = chars[i]; if (diacritics.hasOwnProperty(ch)) { chars[i] = diacritics[ch]; alter = true; } } if (alter) { str = chars.join(''); } return str; } })(); MyNamespace.Utilities.Slugify = function (input) { if (input == null) input = ''; return MyNamespace.Utilities.RemoveDiacritics(input) .replace(/^\s\s*/, '') // Trim start .replace(/\s\s*$/, '') // Trim end .toLowerCase() // Camel case is bad .replace(/[^a-z0-9_\-\s]+/g, '') // Exchange invalid chars .replace(/[\-\s_]+/g, '-'); // Swap whitespace for single hyphen }