Hibernate - Foreign key is empty while using mappedBy


I've 2 tables Employee & Vehicle, where one employee can have multiple vehicles. Below is the mapping that I've defined:


@Entity(name = "emp_details") public class Employee { @Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO) private int empId; @OneToMany(cascade = CascadeType.ALL, mappedBy="employee") private List<Vehicle> vehicles = new ArrayList<>(); public int getEmpId() { return empId; } public void setEmpId(int empId) { this.empId = empId; } public List<Vehicle> getVehicles() { return vehicles; } public void setVehicles(List<Vehicle> vehicles) { this.vehicles = vehicles; } }


@Entity public class Vehicle { @Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO) private int vehicleId; @ManyToOne @JoinColumn(name="empId") private Employee employee; private String name; public Employee getEmployee() { return employee; } public void setEmployee(Employee employee) { this.employee = employee; } public int getVehicleId() { return vehicleId; } public void setVehicleId(int vehicleId) { this.vehicleId = vehicleId; } public String getName() { return name; } public void setName(String name) { this.name = name; } }

<strong>Main class</strong>

public class HibernateTest { public static void main(String[] args) { Employee emp = new Employee(); Vehicle vehicle = new Vehicle(); vehicle.setName("Honda"); emp.getVehicles().add(vehicle); SessionFactory sFactory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory(); Session session = sFactory.openSession(); session.beginTransaction(); session.save(emp); session.getTransaction().commit(); session.close(); StandardServiceRegistryBuilder.destroy(sFactory.getSessionFactoryOptions().getServiceRegistry()); } }

But when I execute this, Vehicle.employee_id is empty. I was expecting that my foreign key will be inserted there.

<a href="https://i.stack.imgur.com/l2oOz.jpg" rel="nofollow"><img alt="enter image description here" class="b-lazy" data-src="https://i.stack.imgur.com/l2oOz.jpg" data-original="https://i.stack.imgur.com/l2oOz.jpg" src="https://etrip.eimg.top/images/2019/05/07/timg.gif" /></a>

What am I missing?

Thank You


You need to show us the code that persists your entities, but my guess is that you are not setting the employee to the vehicle.

You need to manage both sides of bidirectional entity relationship. Your code should look something like this

employee.getVehicles().add(vehicle); vehicle.setEmployee(employee); session.save(employee);


In this case, Vehicle is the owning side of the relation because the foreign key is in its database table. You just added the new vehicle to the employee's list of vehicles. When you save the employee, there's nothing to change in Employees database, and the save operation cascades to Vehicle. Vehicle does not have its employee set, it is null, so it puts null in empId column

Bottom line, you have to make sure both sides of bidirectional relationship are wired up correctly.


If you have a bidirectional relationship you have to set the relation on both sides.

That means you have to set the employee for your vehicle also.

You can do this by calling


and then store or update your entity (if it's not attached to session already).

Usually to set a bidirectional relationship you provide special methods in your entities.

public class Vehicle { ... public void setEmployee(Employee employee) { this.employee = employee; employee.addVehicle(this) } ... } public class Employee { ... public void addVehicle(Vehicle v) { if(!vehicles.contains(v)) { vehicles.add(v); } if(!this.equals(v.getEmployee()) { v.setEmployee(this); } } ... }


In your Employee entity class, you haven't used @Column annotation on empId. In Vehicle class you are referencing Employee using @JoinColumn(name="employee_id"),so column <strong>employee_id</strong> must exist in emp_details table. So you need to modify your Employee class to something with

@Id @GeneratedValue @Column(name="employee_id") private int empId;


I think need to edit your code. you miss the entity jpa rule. you can some search jpa entity. you read description for you. link : <a href="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/jpa/index.htm" rel="nofollow">enter link description here</a>

(Modified your Employee.java)

@Entity(name = "employee") public class Employee { @Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO) private int idx; @OneToMany(cascade = {CascadeType.ALL}, mappedBy = "employee") private List<Vehicle> vehicle = new ArrayList<>(); ... }

(Modified your Vehicle.java)

@Entity public class Vehicle { @Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO) private int idx; @ManyToOne @JoinColumn(name="employee_id") private Employee employee; ... }


You only need to cascade onetoMany from Employee Entity


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