PHP - include() or require() with relative paths won't work on windows, even when appending __D


I was reading here about problems in PHP when using include() or required() with relative paths and all the solutions I saw was to append <strong>DIR</strong>

I'm currently working on Windows, and even though the error message displays the current value of <strong>DIR</strong>, then the relative path seems to be added as a string, rather than going one level up, for example:

include(__DIR__ . "..\\another_folder\\file_2.php");

produces the following error: Warning: include(C:\xampp\htdocs\main_folder..\another_folder\file_2.php) [function.include]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory in

Any idea what's going on?


You need to add the \ after the directory name:

include(__DIR__ . "\\..\\another_folder\\file_2.php");

This will make the path be




instead of




Also, for portability, it is advisable to use / instead of \, which works on all platforms, including Windows:

include(__DIR__ . "/../another_folder/file_2.php");


Don't use backslashes in paths in PHP, use regular forward slashes (/) everywhere. PHP will translate to the appropriate OS-specific directory separators for you automatically.

That being said, look at the error message in detail:

... lude(C:\xampp\htdocs\main_folder..\another_folder\file_2.php) [func... ^--- missing a slash here


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