For my application, I am trying to build an SQLite parser. As my application is using Objective-C, ParseKit seems like a good option. I read SQLite's syntax diagrams and built a grammar based on them. However, when I try to parse something using this grammar, the parser goes into infinite recursion.
The only statements I need are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE (I need SELECT mostly because the others refer to it). My @start is designed to handle multiple statements separated by semicolons:
@start = statement (';' statement)*; statement = select_stmt | insert_stmt | update_stmt | delete_stmt ;
The statements are as follows:
select_stmt = select_core ( compound_operator select_core )* order_expr? limit_expr? ; select_core = 'select' ( 'distinct' | 'all' )? result_column ( ',' result_column )* from_expr where_expr group_expr ; result_column = '*' | table_name '.' '*' | expr ( 'as'? column_alias )? ; insert_stmt = 'insert' or_on_failure? 'into' table_name insert_expr ; insert_expr = insert_expr_cols? (insert_expr_values | select_stmt) ; insert_expr_cols = '(' column_name ( ',' column_name )* ')' ; insert_expr_values = 'values' '(' expr ( ',' expr )* ')' ; insert_expr_defaults = 'default' 'values' ; update_stmt = 'update' or_on_failure? qualified_table_name update_expr where_expr? limited_expr? ; update_expr = 'set' update_expr_col ( ',' update_expr_col )* ; update_expr_col = column_name '=' expr ; delete_stmt = 'delete' 'from' qualified_table_name where_expr? limited_expr? ;
And their supporting expressions:
order_expr = 'order' 'by' ordering_term (',' ordering_term)* ; limit_expr = 'limit' expr ( ( 'offset' | ',' ) expr )? ; from_expr = 'from' join_source ; where_expr = 'where' expr ; group_expr = 'group' 'by' expr ( ',' expr )? ( 'having' expr )? ; join_source = single_source ( join_operator single_source join_constraint? )* ; single_source = table_name 'as' table_alias indexed_by? | '(' select_stmt ')' ( 'as'? table_alias )? | '(' join_source ')' ; or_on_failure = 'or' on_failure ; on_failure = 'rollback' | 'abort' | 'replace' | 'fail' | 'ignore' ; limited_expr = order_expr limit_expr ;
database_name = name ; table_name = (database_name '.')? name ; column_name = (table_name '.')? name ; table_alias = name ; column_alias = name ; index_name = name ; type_name = name+ ( '(' number (',' number)? ')' )? ; function_name = name ; collation_name = name ; qualified_table_name = table_name indexed_by? ;
Miscellaneous operators, etc:
indexed_by = 'indexed' 'by' index_name | 'not' 'indexed' ; unary_operator = symbol ; binary_operator = symbol ; compound_operator = 'union' 'all'? | 'intersect' | 'except' ; join_operator = ',' | 'natural'? ( 'left' 'outer'? | 'inner' | 'cross' ) 'join' ; join_constraint = 'on' expr | 'using' '(' column_name ( ',' column_name )* ')' ;
literal = number | string | 'null' | 'current_time' | 'current_data' | 'current_timestamp' ; number = Number ; string = Word | QuotedString ; name = Word | QuotedString ; symbol = Symbol;
And the EXPR:
expr = literal | column_name | unary_operator expr | expr binary_operator expr | function_name '(' ( '*' | 'distinct'? expr ( ',' expr )* )? ')' | '(' expr ')' | 'cast' '(' expr 'as' type_name ')' | expr 'collate' collation_name | expr 'not'? ( 'like' | 'glob' | 'regexp' | 'match' ) expr ( 'escape' expr )? | expr ( 'isnull' | 'notnull' | 'not' 'null' ) | expr 'is' 'not'? expr | expr 'not'? 'between' expr 'and' expr | expr 'not'? 'in' ( table_name | '(' ( select_stmt | expr ( ',' expr )* )? ')' ) | ( 'not'? 'exists' )? '(' select_stmt ')' | 'case' expr? ( 'when' expr 'then' expr )+ ( 'else' expr )? 'end' ;
When I stepped through the code, the basic path was @start -> statement -> select_stmt -> select_core -> result_column -> expr -> expr -> expr...
After about 8-9k calls between PKParser's matchAndAssemble: and PKParser/Subclass's allMatchesFor:, something dies, usually from a EXC_BAD_ACCESS error (and then LLDB can't do anything either).
P.S.: If you're going to post an answer saying, 'Oh, you should really do/use this,' A) I like Objective-C. Don't tell me not to use it. It's my choice. My response will likely be a rant. And B) I tried digging through SQLite's source to use their parser. I never got anywhere. If you think I should use that, kindly post the source for their parser as a single file with no other dependencies.
Developer of ParseKit here.
I think there might be an issue in the very first line (but I'm not a SQL expert, so I'm not sure). Shouldn't that be:
@start = (statement ';')+;<hr>
I would strongly recommend using camel case instead of underscores, as underscores will make your Objective-C callbacks very awkward and ugly. That is why camel case is the convention in ParseKit grammars.<hr>
However, I see the main issue. Your grammar includes <strong>Left Recursion</strong> which is not allowed in ParseKit grammars. Particularly in your
expr prodcution (I haven't looked closely to see if it is elsewhere too).
But basically left recursion is when a production immediately references itself (on the left side of an expression):
e = e '-' Number;
e = Number | e '-' Number;
Instead, you must design your grammars to remove left recursion like:
e = Number ('-' Number)*;